Business and investment opportunities in fish farming value chain in Nigeria

By: Agbaji Chinedu

One of the most popular agribusiness in Nigeria is fish farming, because of the jobs it has created through the value chains. Nowadays, the modern farm practice has made it possible to grow fish in the farms. Gone are the days when the only means of getting fish is through the local rivers etc through trial and errors.

Fish farming is an act of rearing fish for commercial purpose. This involves building the earthen, tarpaulin or concrete pond, fertilizing the pond, stocking the fingerlings in good water and feeding the Mackerel, Tilapia or catfish till market size. While there are thousands of fish species all around the globe, only very few of them are viable for commercial fish farming.

Nigeria is one of the largest aquaculture producers in Sub-Saharan Africa. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the , the fish farming business employed over 13,000 people in 2012 in Nigeria. Also, fish farming just like other agricultural areas is encouraged by the government and can receive financial support from the government and other institutions.

Fish farming thrives in most parts of Nigeria especially Southwest, South, Southeast, and North Central. The most farmed species of fish in Nigeria are catfish and tilapia, even though Nigeria has an that supports the farming of other tropical species of fish.

A fish farm is considered to be well planned when the water control structure, different pond compartments/sizes and other management structures complement each other.


  • Tilapia Fish Farming: Tilapia is one of the common types of fish cultivated in Nigeria. It is a warm-water fish, with a rapid growth rate and comes in larger sizes compared to other fishes. Tilapia fishes grow in a freshwater such as streams, ponds, lakes mostly not in brackish water.
  • Cat Fish Farming: Catfish is the most commonly farmed fish in Nigeria. It can be reared on a small or large scale. Farming catfish involves creating ponds, breeding of fingerlings, or juvenile to maturing stage.


  • Safe Land: Any location is good since fish doesn’t any environmental disturbance. Look for an affordable land in a safe area. Depending on the capacity you want to operate on, a plot of land is just good enough for average fish farm.
  • Construct Ponds: You need to engage the service of expert pond construction engineer or you go to another fish farm to get the specification and construction requirements. The plumbing work must be properly done to ensure proper drainage. There different types of pound you can use depending on your location. Such as Earthen Fish Pond, Concrete Fish Pond, Plastic Tank Fish Pond, Tarpaulin Fish Pond etc.
  • Borehole Construction: Adequate water supply is the lifeblood of fish farm and lack of it may result to disaster because water need to be changed on regular interval. Naturally available of water such as borehole and river water is the most suitable. Rain water and tap water from chemically treated source is not recommended for fish cultivation.
  • Overhead Tank: This is the water reservoir from which water is supplied to your ponds. This tank has to be connected to your ponds through plumbing system to it convenient for water to flow into your ponds when needed.
  • Get Juvenile Fish: Get your juvenile from another farm that specializes in supplying it. You need to go for the high yield specie of catfish or tilapia and sure you are getting it from a healthy farm.
  • Good Source of feed: Fish feed is key to fish farming also; you must be sure of your source of feed.

Note: You need to be trained properly before engaging into fish farming for optimal result.

 Nigerians consume nearly 2 million tons of fish per year, and the country’s growing population ensures demand will continue to boom. Demand far outweighs current national , making it necessary to import fish from all over the world. However, in recent years the price of imported fish has increased significantly because of the devaluation of the Nigerian naira.


  • Fish Hatchery (fingerlings ): This is an artificial way of reproducing fish. It is a process of hatching, breeding, and growing fishes throughout the various stages of the life cycles. You can your money hatching or supplying fingerlings.
  • Pound construction: Pound construction is a very vital aspect of fish farming; you need to an expert to advice you on the kind of pound to use depending on your location.
  •  Feed and sales: you can make money selling fish feed or producing it.
  • Marketing of fish: You don’t need to own a fish farm before making money from fish farming in Nigeria. All you need to do is to discover a market and a farmer you know agree on price per kg before contacting your buyers once you agree on terms, you will move the fish. Most marketer or brokers usually have space where they keep fish.
  • Maggot Production: Maggots are used for fish feed production. It’s also used for fish fattening. Maggots are on high demand in the fish farming industry.
  • Smoke fish: This another business in fish farming that a lot of people are taking advantage of because of the demand for smoke fish both in Nigeria and international market. There are available locally fabricated fish dryer you can use that can be fired with or charcoal.

Fish farming represents a major market for smallholder farmers in Nigeria, and Chi Farms is helping farmers, especially women, take advantage of it to build sustainable, long- of income. By providing farmers with inputs, education in aquaculture best practices, and technical support throughout the production cycle, Chi Farms is helping support small business growth for women. And by facilitating financial access and market linkage Chi Farms is building a sustainable aquaculture sector in Nigeria.